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More specifically, we look at the incentives effecting eth2 and how they are realised in the form of rewards, penalties, and slashings. Update on the Vyper Compiler by Piper Merriam The idea behind the Vyper Project was to develop something that was designed at the language level to naturally exhibit a high degree of safety.
The project was originally authored by Vitalik as a proof-of-concept replacement for Serpent, its predecessor, but shortly after its creation Vyper found itself without a dedicated maintainer. Luckily, there were enthusiastic community members that took up the torch and continued development of the project, and we the EF Python Team became re-involved in the project We ended with the concept of stateless ethereum, and left a more detailed examination of the stateless client for this post.
Stateless is the new direction of Eth 1. Ethereum Muir Glacier Upgrade Announcement by Hudson Jameson The Ethereum network will be undergoing a scheduled upgrade at block number 9,,, which is predicted to occur on Wednesday, January 1, A handful of new eth2 testnets have come online and last week I had them all running on my laptop. There is still plenty of work to be done, but this is getting real :. The next call will be focused on collecting and organizing research topics and planning a more structured roadmap.
The call is open for anyone to attend, and is scheduled for December 17th at UTC — if From improved network conditions, to the coming Istanbul release and Eth1. This series focuses on teams and efforts from the Foundation and larger Ethereum ecosystem that are working to grow and improve Ethereum as a whole. As the launch of the beacon chain grows nearer and eth2 becomes ever more final, the time has come to fast-sync the community with the latest on the inner workings of eth2 and on the concrete requirements, incentives and experience of being a validator.
This article will provide a high-level overview of eth2 which will form the basis for a series on all aspects of eth2 relevant to validators. There are a lot of moving pieces to talk about this week. Other than the heroic eth2 client development going on, these are the highlights: tldr; Grant to Sigma Prime for eth2 differential fuzzing Light Client Task Force is formed Some notes on the uni-directional bridge between eth1 and eth2.
Ethereum Istanbul Upgrade Announcement by Hudson Jameson The Ethereum network will be undergoing a scheduled upgrade at block number 9,,, which is predicted to occur on Saturday, December 7, With Eth2 development proceeding rapidly, there are now many discrete areas of work that a team of motivated hackers can complete over a weekend.
The bounties below include useful educational tools for Eth2 development, necessary tooling, and valuable research. Members of Eth2 teams will be available remotely during the hackathon to answer questions from hackers and provide Work continues in ironing out the details of the modified Phase 1 proposal. With this exciting success in Eth2 development, we wanted to reflect on how this point was reached and on what it means to the Ethereum network and ecosystem.
Each of The v1. Both have been present in the compiler for a long time and have only been discovered now even though a contract containing them should very likely show malfunctions in tests. Daenam Kim with help from Nguyen Pham, both from Curvegrid discovered an issue where invalid data is stored in connection with arrays of signed integers.
This bug has been present EF-Supported Teams: Development Report by Ethereum Foundation Team Friends, Over the last year, developers and researchers supported by Ethereum Foundation have kept their heads down and continued to produce at a staggering pace. Today, our regular all-team update series is relaunching in a changed and ever growing ecosystem. Ethereum features larger dApp, developer and user communities than ever before, the network has continued to improve, and steady progress has been made on Upon investigation, it was found that the component suffers from a few different variations of the same type.
The first part of this announcement explains this bug in detail. The new ABI encoder is still marked as experimental, but we nevertheless think that this deserves a prominent announcement since it is Petersburg Upgrade Announcement by Hudson Jameson The Ethereum network will be undergoing a scheduled upgrade at block number 7,,, which is predicted to occur on Thursday, February 28, The exact date is subject to change depending on block times between now and then and could be activated days before or after.
What is Constantinople and St. Constantinople and St. Petersburg are the names given The Ethereum network will be undergoing a scheduled upgrade at block number 7,,, which is predicted to occur on Wednesday, January 16, You can Another important bug has already been fixed in version 0. Note that the Ethereum Foundation runs a bounty program for the code generator part of Solidity.
Swarm 0. We welcome everyone to try it out or commit to operate stable nodes Geth 1. Please note, this release introduces a few breaking changes that may affect certain power users! Ethereum scalability research and development subsidy programs by Vitalik Buterin The Ethereum community, key developers and researchers and others have always recognized scalability as perhaps the single most important key technical challenge that needs to be solved in order for blockchain applications to reach mass adoption.
Blockchain scalability is difficult primarily because a typical blockchain design requires every node in the network to process every transaction, which limits the transaction processing capacity of the entire system to the capacity of a single node. There are two main paths to improving Q4 Roundup by Ethereum Team Ethereum has grown very rapidly in the last few months.
Transaction volume on the blockchain has more than doubled, surpassing 10 transactions per second for days at a time. The number of new accounts created per day passed ,, and the number of nodes has increased despite rising system requirements. As a user, what do I need to do? Latest geth client v 1. Roundup 6 by Ethereum Team Metropolis is finally almost here! The fork for Byzantium, the first and larger part of Metropolis, succeeded on the testnet over two weeks ago, and the likely date for the fork on the mainnet has been set to block 4.
At the same time, we have been Roundup 5 by Ethereum Foundation Team Development has steadily continued over the last month and a half as we approach the launch of Metropolis. Over a series of core dev calls over the last few months, we have specified and finalized the EIPs for Metropolis, and made the appropriate changes to the Yellow Paper.
EIPs for Byzantium Metropolis part one are essentially finalized, and the last remaining work to be done has Roundup Q2 by Vitalik Buterin Thanks to all the developers and team leads who contributed to the sections on their projects In the last month and a half, the Ethereum network went through a rapid growth in usage, to the point that it now processes as many transactions per second as Bitcoin. Roundup Round III by Vitalik Buterin Over the last month and a half we saw vigorous ongoing research and development on all sides of the Ethereum roadmap, and progress is rapidly starting to translate into real results that can be run and verified inside of an Ethereum client.
This bug is patched as of , with the release of Solidity 0. Background The bug in question concerned how the optimizer optimizes on constants in the byte code. For example, if the value 0xfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe is PUSHed, then the optimizer can either do Glimpsing through the commit list, this is going to be a monster post!
Toml configuration files For a very long time now, people were requesting that we support configuration files to aid in switching between different public and pirate chains. Ethereum Dev Roundup: Q1 Boring Edition by Vitalik Buterin The last one and a half months have seen great progress for Ethereum research, and we are excited that the protocol is moving closer and closer to the point where it is ready for mainstream adoption. Progress on consensus algorithms, privacy, zero knowledge proofs and formal verification is happening at increasing speed, and our research and development teams are expanding substantially.
A large amount of progress has been made on Casper. You can find a few Medium posts describing the Ethereum Dev Roundup: Q1 by Vitalik Buterin The last one and a half months have seen great progress for Ethereum research, and we are excited that the protocol is moving closer and closer to the point where it is ready for mainstream adoption.
After three years of trying to find solutions to the "nothing at stake" and "stake grinding" attacks, we have To start with, there was a really great hackathon with IPFS. This will be important work in the future for building pure in-browser clients. Also Casey Detrio This joint post is being concurrently posted on the Zcash blog, and is coauthored by Ariel Gabizon Zcash and Christian Reitwiessner Ethereum.
The possibilities grow considerably when adding the capacity for privacy. Imagine, for example, an In most cases a properly December Roundup by Vitalik Buterin December marks a month of continued progress in the Ethereum ecosystem. Swarm alpha public pilot and the basics of Swarm by Viktor Tron With the long awaited geth 1. The current version of the code is POC 0. The current release ships with the swarmcommand that launches a standalone Swarm daemon as separate process using your favourite IPC-compliant ethereum The History of Casper — Chapter 2 by Vlad Zamfir This chapter describes the game theory and economic security modelling we were doing in the Fall of The History of Casper — Chapter 1 by Vlad Zamfir Vitalik suggested last week that I share my basic research and design philosophy in a blog post, I agreed but complained that it was still changing.
My friend Jon West told me that everyone would really appreciate it if I told everyone about my Casper research, I mostly agreed. Then someone on reddit told me to focus on Ethereum. Ethereum Research Update by Vitalik Buterin This week marks the completion of our fourth hard fork, Spurious Dragon, and the subsequent state clearing process, the final steps in the two-hard-fork solution to the recent Ethereum denial of service attacks that slowed down the network in September and October. Gas limits are in the process of being increased to 4 million as the network returns to normal, and will be increased further as additional optimizations to clients are finished to allow quicker reading of state data.
In the midst of From Morden to Ropsten by Martin Swende. Hard Fork No. The Morden test network will be undergoing a hard fork at block number 1,, Whoa… Geth 1. Go Ethereum website The go-ethereum project never really had a website. Analysis of Storage Corruption Bug by Christian Reitwiessner This blog post provides an update on our findings following the discovery of the storage corruption bug last week. In summary, the bug was much less severe than we initially thought.
The small number of affected contracts we found is either only exploitable by the owner, or the exploit can only cause a disruption in the user interface and not in the actual contract logic. Of course, please still check Uncle Rate and Transaction Fee Analysis by Vitalik Buterin One of the important indicators of how much load the Ethereum blockchain can safely handle is how the uncle rate responds to the gas usage of a transaction.
Announcement of imminent hard fork for EIP gas cost changes by Martin Swende During the last couple of weeks, the Ethereum network has been the target of a sustained attack. The attacker s have been very crafty in locating vulnerabilities in the client implementations as well as the protocol specification.
While the recent patches have led to an overall increased resiliency in the client implementations, the attacks have also demonstrated that a lower-level change to the EVM pricing model is needed. For many users, the most visible consequence is probably that they are having The attack is a computational DDoS, ie.
The consequence of this is that the network is greatly slowing down, but there is NO consensus Dev Update: Formal Methods by Christian Reitwiessner Today, I am delighted to announce that Yoichi Hirai pirapira on github is joining the Ethereum project as a formal verification engineer.
He holds a PhD from the University of Tokyo on the topic of formalizing communicating parallel processes and created formal verification tools for Ethereum in his spare time. My reasoning: formal verification makes sense as a profession only in a rare situation where the verification target The blockchain must pay miners or validators to economically participate in its consensus protocol, whether proof of work or proof of stake, and this inevitably incurs some cost.
There are two ways to pay for this cost: inflation and transaction fees. Currently, Bitcoin and Ethereum, the two leading proof-of-work blockchains, both use high levels of inflation to pay for security; the Bitcoin community presently intends to Onward from the Hard Fork by Vitalik Buterin The foundation has committed to support the community consensus on the admittedly difficult hard fork decision.
Seeing the results of various metrics, including carbonvote, dapp and ecosystem infrastructure adoption, this means that we will focus our resources and attention on the chain which is now called ETH ie. That said, we recognize that the Ethereum code can be used to instantiate other blockchains with the same consensus rules, including testnets, consortium and private chains, clones and spinoffs, Not only did it turn out that we underestimated the side effects on the consensus protocol i.
DoS vulnerability , but we also managed to introduce a data race into the rushed implementation that was a ticking time bomb. It was not ideal, and even though averted at the last instance, the fast approaching hard-fork deadline looked eerily bleak to say the least.
We needed a new strategy… The stepping stone towards this was an idea borrowed from Google Hard Fork Completed by Vitalik Buterin We would like to congratulate the Ethereum community on a successfully completed hard fork. The recovery To fork or not to fork by Jeffrey Wilcke The DAO, though not a product developed by the Ethereum Foundation, has been a hot topic as of late, both internally in the organisation as well as within our community.
The Hard Fork is a delicate topic and the way we see it, no decision is the right one. As this is not a decision that can be made by the foundation or any other single entity, we again turn towards the community to assess its wishes in order to provide the How to build server less applications for Mist by Alex Van de Sande Ethereum is not meant to be a platform to build esoteric smart contract applications that require a STEM degree to understand, but it aims to be one pillar of a different architecture for applications on the world wide web.
With this post we will try to elucidate how this can be done and give some basic examples on how to start building a decentralized app. Who is this for? This text is intended at those who have a basic understanding Tags: contracts decentralised app decentralized web mist server less smart contracts tutorial web 3.
This post wants to give an overview about what we are currently working on. Expect more news on that very The DAO has shown us that it takes much more effort to write smart contracts than we originally anticipated; but also that it takes a surprising amount of debate to reach a consensus on issues of this scale.
On Settlement Finality by Vitalik Buterin Special thanks to Tim Swanson for reviewing, and for further discussions on the arguments in his original paper on settlement finality. Recently one of the major disputes in ongoing debate between public blockchain and permissioned blockchain proponents is the issue of settlement finality.
ConsenSys and Microsoft collaborated on this integration to enable developers to rapidly build smart contract-based applications for the public Ethereum blockchain, as well as private and consortium blockchain deployments based on Ethereum. Serenity PoC2 by Vitalik Buterin After an additional two months of work after the release of the first python proof of concept release of Serenity, I am pleased to announce that Serenity PoC2 is now available.
Although the release continues to be far from a testnet-ready client, much less a production-ready one, PoC2 brings with it a number of important improvements. First and foremost, the goal of PoC2 was to implement the complete protocol, including the basic corner cases slashing bets and deposits , so as Development of Ethereum started in December when two developers and a college dropout researcher decided to put their heads together and develop this amazing piece of technology.
We were later joined by many like-minded individuals. By the time we started our crowdsale on July 23, we were up to PoC 5 with a protocol that was almost finished, From Smart Contracts to Courts with not so Smart Judges by Christian Reitwiessner Ethereum is often described as a platform for self-enforcing smart contracts.
While this is certainly true, this article argues that, especially when more complex systems are involved, it is rather a court with smart lawyers and a judge that is not so smart, or more formally, a judge with restricted computational resources. We will see later how this view can be leveraged to write very efficient smart contract systems, to the extent that cross-chain token transfers or computations like checking The bounty program is ongoing and the last bounty awarded amounted to 5 BTC.
The program is open to anyone. Ethereum is a free software project that anyone is free to use and improve. From what we have seen at our conferences and meetups, there are so many people working on projects on top of Ethereum, but we only While this is correct in some sense; I think it is a bit more. First of all what is a singleton in a distributed system? It is merely a set of values that some threshold of participants have come to consensus on.
A Virtual Machine is a computational environment that is isolated from the physical computer and from other environments. A hypervisor allows the physical machine to be multiplexed Privacy on the Blockchain by Vitalik Buterin Blockchains are a powerful technology, as regular readers of the blog already likely agree. They allow for a large number of interactions to be codified and carried out in a way that greatly increases reliability, removes business and political risks associated with the process being managed by a central entity, and reduces the need for trust.
They create a platform on which applications from different companies and even of different types can run together, allowing for extremely efficient and seamless Understanding Serenity, Part 2: Casper by Vitalik Buterin Special thanks to Vlad Zamfir for introducing the idea of by-block consensus and convincing me of its merits, alongside many of the other core ideas of Casper, and to Vlad Zamfir and Greg Meredith for their continued work on the protocol In the last post in this series, we discussed one of the two flagship feature sets of Serenity: a heightened degree of abstraction that greatly increases the flexibility of the platform and takes a large step in moving Ethereum For a long time we have been public about our plans to continue improving the Ethereum protocol over time and our long development roadmap, learning from our mistakes that we either did not have the opportunity to fix in time for 1.
However, the Ethereum protocol development cycle has started up Ethereum in practice part 3: how to build your own transparent bank on the blockchain by Alex Van de Sande This is the third and final post on a series on how to use the Ethereum Wallet to create your own autonomous organisations. On the first post we detailed how to create a token, and on the second we shown how to generate a digital democracy controlled by these tokens.
Now we will do the full circle and create a token controlled by the Organisation! We are going to modify the token contract to allow it to be minted by Tags: dao ethereum wallet mist token tutorial. Ethereum in practice part 2: how to build a better democracy in under a lines of code by Alex Van de Sande This is a second post on a series on how to use the current Ethereum tools to build smart contracts without needing programming experience.
We are now going to create a new contract that uses the tokens we just created. The contract will be a Democratic organization But first a short introduction: I am Alex Van de Sande and For the past six years, people have been searching to try to find those elusive applications of blockchain technology that could finally break out into the mainstream. For cryptocurrency, the applications are largely already known - though it of course remains to be seen just how well it will be able to retain its advantages as traditional payment systems continue Merkling in Ethereum by Vitalik Buterin Merkle trees are a fundamental part of what makes blockchains tick.
Although it is definitely theoretically possible to make a blockchain without Merkle trees, simply by creating giant block headers that directly contain every transaction, doing so poses large scalability challenges that arguably puts the ability to trustlessly use blockchains out of the reach of all but the most powerful computers in the long term. Thanks to Merkle trees, it is possible to build Ethereum nodes that run on all Stateful Turing-Complete Policies by Vitalik Buterin One of the major security challenges of the internet over the last twenty years has consistently been the rather simple problem of securing user accounts.
Right now, users have accounts with hundreds of websites, and dozens of passwords, leading to large numbers of hacks as individual websites, often run by people not particularly skilled in the finer points of cryptography and internet security, find themselves exploited by increasingly clever hackers, and users frequently deal with the complexity of remembering hundreds Work has been Concurrent with this, the teams are gearing up for DEVCON1, preparing talks and presentations along with finalizing more details in the coming weeks.
If you The Evolution of Ethereum by Vitalik Buterin Many of you know that the Ethereum platform grew out of the realization that blockchains can go far beyond currency, together with a frustration with the limitations of previous projects. The core idea was simple: a blockchain with a built-in Turing-complete programming language, allowing users to build any kind of applications on top. Over time, the vision evolved and expanded.
More uncle statistics by Vitalik Buterin The following are some interesting results on the performance of different miners over the course of the first , blocks of the Ethereum blockchain. For this timespan I have collected the list of block and uncle coinbase addresses; raw data can be found here for blocks and here for uncles, and from this we can glean a lot of interesting information particularly about stale rates and how well-connected the different miners and pools are.
First off, the scatter plot: What The point of this release is to gather feedback, squash bugs and, most importantly, get the code audited. Please note that this is a developer-preview and not the final release. We advise you to be extremely careful putting large amount of Ether in the wallet contracts. Using the wallet on the mainnet should only be done with small amounts! As Steve Ballmer once said Developers! On Slow and Fast Block Times by Vitalik Buterin One of the largest sources of confusion in the question of blockchain security is the precise effect of the block time.
If one blockchain has a block time of 10 minutes, and the other has an estimated block time of 17 seconds, then what exactly does that mean? What is the equivalent of six confirmations on the minute blockchain on the second blockchain? Is blockchain security simply a matter of time, is it a matter of blocks, or a combination On Anti-Pre-Revelation Games by Vitalik Buterin An increasing number of proposed applications on top of Ethereum rely on some kind of incentivized, multi-party data provision - whether voting, random number collection, or other use cases where getting information from multiple parties to increase decentralization is highly desirable, but also where there is a strong risk of collusion.
A RANDAO can certainly provide random numbers with much higher cryptoeconomic security than simple block hashes - and certainly better than deterministic algorithms with publicly knowable seeds, but it Olympic Rewards Announced by Vitalik Buterin ETH DEV would like to thank everyone for their participation in the Olympic test network, which helped us greatly in stress testing, optimization, and finding bugs in the Ethereum clients, as well as determining what the limits of the current Ethereum system are.
To that end, we are pleased to announce the Olympic reward recipients. On top of the rewards announced below, every miner who mined a block in the Olympic chain with block number in the range [, ] Here are some interesting stats from these first blocks. The first 50 block times in seconds : Right after genesis, it took 29 seconds for the second block to appear, then 31 and 29 seconds for the next couple of blocks.
Not too surprising as the miners scrambled with their setups as the final genesis block became known. After these first blocks, we see the block time drop significantly Chain Reorganisation Depth Expectations by Gavin Wood This following shows our current and planned expectations concerning maximum likely chain-reorganisation depth. We would not consider transactions within this depth to have an exceptionally high chance of being permanent.
These are our own expectations only and do not constitute any sort of guarantee. They are derived from theoretical considerations, ongoing empirical data, human factors in contingency planning and the past experience of our security team.
As with all things in the peer-to-peer space the risk is entirely with the Essentially, instead of having a fully public and uncontrolled network and state machine secured by cryptoeconomics eg. Before you go further, if your keys date back from Go 1.
Though some releases of the pre-alpha and alpha clients are secure, this depends on which codebase and which version. You should assume that all keys generated prior to these clients are insecure and compromised. This, note, does not affect the pre-sale wallets Ethereum Launches by Stephan Tual A few minutes ago, many of you generated and loaded the Ethereum Genesis block, marking the inception of Frontier, the first Live release of the Ethereum project.
The Dev team joins me in thanking each and everyone of you for your support during the past year and half. This is a marathon, not a sprint. For this reason we will not make the Genesis block hash known until a solid consensus has been formed. We will not announce the —extradata immediately either - if we Thank you to everyone who provided feedback on my previous blog post.
What became apparent is that prior to the big day, many of you wanted to know more about what the sequence of events would exactly be, and how to prepare your machine for the release. A transparent and open release Frontier users will need to Tags: frontier. How do you know Ethereum is secure? As you might remember, I joined the Ethereum team at the end of last year to manage the security audit.
Tags: ethereum secure. Rather than limiting users to a specific set of transaction types and applications, the platform allows anyone to create any kind of blockchain application by writing a script and uploading it Although it is important to Ethereum messaging for the masses including fathers — via infographic by Anthony Di Iorio When I started evangelizing bitcoin and blockchain tech back in my Dad was a hard sell.
Tags: explaining ethereum infographic. Tags: dev ethereum update. The Problem of Censorship by Vitalik Buterin One of the interesting problems in designing effective blockchain technologies is, how can we ensure that the systems remain censorship-proof? Introduction In the world of cryptography-based computer science, the Ethereum technology vision has captivated the imagination of a large number of software developers and technologists who saw its obvious promise. But those same promises and their business interpretations and implications have not widely reached, nor been well understood by non-technical audiences.
As Ethereum nears coming out Tags: business decentralized web ecosystem ethereum. Included in the kit is a Raspberry Pi version 2 , power connector and SD card preloaded with Tags: ethereum olympic raspberry pi rpi. Olympic: Frontier Pre-Release by Vitalik Buterin What began all the way back on midnight of February 1st , is coming to a close: we are happy to announce the release of the ninth and last in the Ethereum Proof-of-Concept series. We invite the community to participate in the ongoing Proof-of-Concept IX testnet in our present release, Olympic, made available now.
The purpose of Olympic is to reward people who try to test the limits of the Ethereum blockchain during the pre-release period, spamming the network with The end of the beginning… by Gavin Wood As part of our tiered release process, we will soon be beginning the final phase prior to our Frontier release. So far our ongoing Proof-of-Concept IX testnet has been running smoothly for around a month with dozens of nodes around the world, well over , blocks and including clients on several platforms and three different clean-room implementations.
Tags: dev ethereum olympic. Visions, Part 2: The Problem of Trust by Vitalik Buterin Special thanks to: Robert Sams, Gavin Wood, Mark Karpeles and countless cryptocurrency critics on online forums for helping to develop the thoughts behind this article If you were to ask the average cryptocurrency or blockchain enthusiast what the key single fundamental advantage of the technology is, there is a high chance that they will give you one particular predictable answer: it does not require trust.
Unlike traditional financial or other systems, where you need to trust a particular entity to Visions, Part 1: The Value of Blockchain Technology by Vitalik Buterin One of the questions that has perhaps been central to my own research in blockchain technology is: ultimately, what is it even useful for?
Why do we need blockchains for anything, what kinds of services should be run on blockchain-like architectures, and why specifically should services be run on blockchains instead of just living on plain old servers? Exactly how much value do blockchains provide: are they absolutely essential, or are they just nice to have?
And, perhaps most importantly Because I think there is a lot of untapped potential in this community, and I think Tags: collaboration framework ethereum ethereum builders open collaboration. Unfortunately, the original article I wrote was lost along with my laptop when it was stolen in Vienna. After chatting over the principles with Vitalik more recently, we made a number of alterations and formalisations, mainly to the validation and the sub-state cutting mechanisms. What follows is a fairly complete illustration of one particular possible plan for block chain