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Each bill can only be spent once since, once spent, the UTXO is removed from the pool. In contrast to the information above, the Ethereum world state is able to manage account balances, and more. The state of Ethereum is not an abstract concept. As with all other blockchains, the Ethereum blockchain begins life at its own genesis block. From this point genesis state at block 0 onward, activities such as transactions, contracts, and mining will continually change the state of the Ethereum blockchain.
In Ethereum, an example of this would be an account balance stored in the state trie which changes every time a transaction, in relation to that account, takes place. Importantly, data such as account balances are not stored directly in the blocks of the Ethereum blockchain.
Only the root node hashes of the transaction trie, state trie and receipts trie are stored directly in the blockchain. This is illustrated in the diagram below. You will also notice, from the above diagram, that the root node hash of the storage trie where all of the smart contract data is kept actually points to the state trie, which in turn points to the blockchain. We will zoom in and cover all of this in more detail soon.
There are two vastly different types of data in Ethereum; permanent data and ephemeral data. An example of permanent data would be a transaction. Once a transaction has been fully confirmed, it is recorded in the transaction trie; it is never altered. An example of ephemeral data would be the balance of a particular Ethereum account address.
The balance of an account address is stored in the state trie and is altered whenever transactions against that particular account occur. It makes sense that permanent data, like mined transactions, and ephemeral data, like account balances, should be stored separately.
Ethereum uses trie data structures to manage data. The record-keeping for Ethereum is just like that in a bank. The bank tracks how much money each debit card has, and when we need to spend money, the bank checks its record to make sure we have enough balance before approving the transaction.
An incrementing nonce can be implemented to counteract this type of attack. In Ethereum, every account has a public viewable nonce and every time a transaction is made, the nonce is increased by one. This can prevent the same transaction being submitted more than once. Note, this nonce is different from the Ethereum proof of work nonce, which is a random value.
Like most things in computer architecture, both models have trade-offs. Some blockchains, notably Hyperledger, adopt UTXO because they can benefit from the innovation derived from the Bitcoin blockchain. We will look into more technologies that are built on top of these two record-keeping models.
The state trie contains a key and value pair for every account which exists on the Ethereum network. A storage trie is where all of the contract data lives. Each Ethereum account has its own storage trie. Each Ethereum block has its own separate transaction trie.
A block contains many transactions. The order of the transactions in a block are of course decided by the miner who assembles the block. The path to a specific transaction in the transaction trie, is via the RLP encoding of the index of where the transaction sits in the block. Mined blocks are never updated; the position of the transaction in a block is never changed. The main Ethereum clients use two different database software solutions to store their tries. Rocksdb is out of scope for this post.
LevelDB is an open source Google key-value storage library which provides, amongst other things, forward and backward iterations over data, ordered mapping from string keys to string values, custom comparison functions and automatic compression. Whilst Snappy does not aim for maximum compression, it aims for very high speeds. Leveldb is an important storage and retrieval mechanism which manages the state of the Ethereum network. As such, leveldb is a dependency for the most popular Ethereum clients nodes such as go-ethereum, cpp-ethereum and pyethereum.
To learn more, we have to access the data in leveldb using the appropriate Patricia trie libraries. To do this we will need an Ethereum installation. Here is a easy to follow tutorial for setting up your own Ethereum private network. We will provide our code examples and screen captures from our Ethereum private network. As we mentioned previously there are many Merkle Patricia Tries referenced in each block within the Ethereum blockchain:.
To reference a particular Merkle Patricia Trie in a particular block we need to obtain its root hash, as a reference. The following commands allow us to obtain the root hashes of the state, transaction and receipt tries in the genesis block. Note: If you would like the root hashes of the latest block instead of the genesis block , please use the following command. The following commands will further prepare our environment.
The blocks on the blockchain represent units of time, the blockchain itself is a temporal dimension and represents the entire history of states at the discrete time points designated by the blocks on the chain. Messages are virtual objects that are never serialized and exist only in the Ethereum execution environment. They can be conceived of as function calls. Essentially, a message is like a transaction, except it is produced by a contract and not an external actor.
Like a transaction, a message leads to the recipient account running its code. Thus, contracts can have relationships with other contracts in exactly the same way that external actors can. Every node participating in the network runs the EVM as part of the block verification protocol.
They go through the transactions listed in the block they are verifying and run the code as triggered by the transaction within the EVM. Each and every full node in the network does the same calculations and stores the same values.
Clearly Ethereum is not about optimising efficiency of computation. Its parallel processing is redundantly parallel. This is to offer an efficient way to reach consensus on the system state without needing trusted third parties, oracles or violence monopolies. But importantly they are not there for optimal computation.
The fact that contract executions are redundantly replicated across nodes, naturally makes them expensive, which generally creates an incentive not to use the blockchain for computation that can be done offchain. When you are running a decentralized application dapp , it interacts with the blockchain to read and modify its state, but dapps will typically only put the business logic and state that are crucial for consensus on the blockchain.
When a contract is executed as a result of being triggered by a message or transaction, every instruction is executed on every node of the network. This has a cost: for every executed operation there is a specified cost, expressed in a number of gas units. Gas is the name for the execution fee that senders of transactions need to pay for every operation made on an Ethereum blockchain.
The name gas is inspired by the view that this fee acts as cryptofuel, driving the motion of smart contracts. Gas is purchased for ether from the miners that execute the code. Gas and ether are decoupled deliberately since units of gas align with computation units having a natural cost, while the price of ether generally fluctuates as a result of market forces.
The two are mediated by a free market: the price of gas is actually decided by the miners, who can refuse to process a transaction with a lower gas price than their minimum limit. To get gas you simply need to add ether to your account.
The Ethereum clients automatically purchase gas for your ether in the amount you specify as your maximum expenditure for the transaction. The Ethereum protocol charges a fee per computational step that is executed in a contract or transaction to prevent deliberate attacks and abuse on the Ethereum network.
Every transaction is required to include a gas limit and a fee that it is willing to pay per gas. Miners have the choice of including the transaction and collecting the fee or not. If the total amount of gas used by the computational steps spawned by the transaction, including the original message and any sub-messages that may be triggered, is less than or equal to the gas limit, then the transaction is processed.
If the total gas exceeds the gas limit, then all changes are reverted, except that the transaction is still valid and the fee can still be collected by the miner. All excess gas not used by the transaction execution is reimbursed to the sender as Ether. You do not need to worry about overspending, since you are only charged for the gas you consume.
This means that it is useful as well as safe to send transactions with a gas limit well above the estimates. Each operation in the EVM was assigned a number of how much gas it consumes. There is a spreadsheet which offers a glimpse to some of the analysis behind this.
A user constructs and signs a transaction, and each user may specify whatever gasPrice they desire, which can be zero.
ATTENTION!This page does not represent the entire state of the ethereum network - listing a node on this page is a voluntary process. Ethereum (ETH) price stats and information ; Transactions last 24h (Number of transactions in blockchain per day), 1,, ; Transactions avg. per hour, 46, A collection of charts and statistics showing market data, on-chain data, network data, top statistics, and contract data of the Ethereum Blockchain.